Our institution in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas sits on the ancestral land of the Karankawa, Tāp Pīlam Coahuiltecan, Ndé Kónitsąąíí Gokíyaa (Lipan Apache), Carrizo/Comecrudo, and Rayados/Borrados. We acknowledge and pay respect to their Elders and their past, present, and future peoples, cultures, languages, and communities.
This research guide aims to help students interested in researching the Ndé Kónitsąąíí Gokíyaa (Lipan Apache) peoples of South Texas. The guide links to resources held by UTRGV Special Collections and Archives in our physical and digital repositories. Primary sources on the Lipan Apache available at our institution are limited. However, research materials can be found among external and secondary sources, especially publications and noted Lipan Apache websites.
IMPORTANT: UTRGV Special Collections and Archives recognizes Native American Sovereignty and seeks to accurately and respectfully honor and represent the heritage, history, and culture of indigenous people using their preferred terminology. Therefore, our staff welcomes suggestions for restorative efforts to improve description and representation.
We strongly recommend visiting the official Lipan Apache website linked below and checking out the Native Land is an app to help map indigenous territories, treaties, and languages.
Social and Economic Development Strategies Grant - Lipan Apache Band of Texas (LOS), 2001, Container: 146, Box: 112, Folder: 39. Rubén Hinojosa Congressional Papers, ELIBR-0146. University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Special Collections and Archives, Edinburg Campus.
Economic Development Strategies Grant - Lipan Apache Band of Texas (LOS), 2002, Container: 146, Box: 95, Folder: 50. Rubén Hinojosa Congressional Papers, ELIBR-0146. University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Special Collections and Archives, Edinburg Campus.
Social and Economic Development Strategies Grant - Lipan Apache Band of Texas, Inc. (LOS), 2004, Container: 146, Box: 110, Folder: 25. Rubén Hinojosa Congressional Papers, ELIBR-0146. University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Special Collections and Archives, Edinburg Campus.
South Texas Indian Dancers [newsletter]. Reference Files, ELIBR-0062. University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Special Collections and Archives, Edinburg
Soto, Robert [The Son Tree newsletter]. Reference Files, ELIBR-0062. University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Special Collections and Archives, Edinburg Campus.
The Bexar Archives are described on the Briscoe Center for American History website as “the official Spanish documents that preserve the political, military, economic, and social life of the Spanish province of Texas and the Mexican state of Coahuila y Texas. Both in their volume and breadth of subject matter, the Bexar Archives are an important source for the history of Hispanic Texas up to 1836.” Included with these documents of the past of Spanish Texas are the interactions between the Spanish settlers and the indigenous peoples of Texas. These sources are useful for getting a sense of how the Spanish settlers interacted with natives, what they thought about them, and overall how they treated them. The Bexar Archives contents can be viewed translated or in their original form online or through the UTRGV Special Collections and Archives microfilm collection in Brownsville
UTRGV Special Collections & Archives in Edinburg houses research material (photocopies only) relating to the former Spanish colonies of Texas and Mexico, including Nuevo Santander. You can make an appointment to use the Colonial Spanish Research Materials photostatic copies, ELIBR-0114 in person or access digitized materials via PARES: Portal de Archivos Españoles (see below).
The research guides compiled by UTRGV staff and students are intended to assist patrons who are embarking upon new research endeavors. Our goal is to expand their knowledge of the types of resources available on a given topic, including books, archival materials, and websites. In so doing, our compilers have taken care to include collections, digital items, and resources that may be accessed not only through UTRGV but also via other institutions, repositories, and websites.
We wholeheartedly respect the research interests of others. Therefore, please contact us if you wish to submit a resource for consideration, or if you have a question about or an issue with a specific cited resource.
Chief Cuelgas de Castro ( unknown–1842) was a leading Apache chief in 1821 when Mexico won its independence from Spain. In 1838, he signed the Treaty of Live Oak Point, which formally established and recognized "Peace and Perpetual friendship" between the Republic of Texas and the Lipan people.
Lipans are said to have ridden with the Texas militia and the Rangers, including Chief Flacco (circa. 1790-1850), who led a Lower Lipan band that ranged from east of San Antonio to areas southwest of San Antonio (particularly Medina and Uvalde counties). He was a close associate of Ranger Capt. Jack Hays and Gov. Sam Houston. In 1843, Sam Houston wrote, "The name of Flacco brought joy to all hearts!"
Continue learning about relations between the indigenous peoples of Texas and Mexico in the six-volume set of The Indian Papers of Texas and the Southwest 1825-1916, by Dorman H. Winfrey and James M. Day. The Indian Papers of Texas and the Southwest 1825-1916: Volumes 1–6, via University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History.
Maximize your time and effort. Let our staff assist you with finding and accessing resources online.
We also invite you to schedule an appointment to meet one-on-one with a member of our Special Collections & Archives staff. Schedule an on-campus research visit or choose to meet online (video chat).